Piled Higher and Deeper: Diapers and PhDs

Here are two perspectives on the subject:

a graphic essay from phdcomics.com

a written essay from The Chronicle of Higher Education


Published in: on January 12, 2010 at 7:50 am  Comments (7)  
Tags: , , ,

Chemistry Demonstrations and Fourth-graders: A Volatile Mixture?

Last week, I attended the regional meeting of the National Science Teachers Association held here in Minneapolis. I enjoyed seeing so many enthusiastic science teachers attending the sessions and wandering around the exhibit hall.

But when did schools start hiring such young teachers? Nearly all of them were quite a bit younger than me. And I’m not that old!   I’m only … well, let’s just say that I’m a seasoned professional.

Instead of feeling old when I left the meeting, however, I felt young and inspired. I particularly enjoyed watching some of the chemistry demonstrations that presenters were teaching to the teachers. As we participated in these hands-on activities, I could sense the energy and excitement rising in the room. It was the same feeling I get when I put on chemistry shows in my children’s classrooms.

I even started thinking back to the first chemistry show I ever witnessed, when I was a fourth-grader at Meeker Elementary School in Ames, Iowa.

Several years ago I wrote up my memories of that chemistry show, and here’s a copy of that brief essay:

The magic of chemistry first reveals itself to me in 1965, during Spring Break of my fourth-grade year, when my family goes on vacation to the big city of Chicago. The highlight of the trip is the visit to the Museum of Science and Industry. As we amble through the museum, we learn about coal mines and submarines. We see a plastic human heart pumping red and blue fluid throughout a life-size model of a human body. We find out about all kinds of machines, from levers and pulleys to the internal combustion engine. And at 2:00 pm, we gather on bleachers in an open area near the lobby to watch a demonstration of “The Wonderful World of Chemistry.”


I’m seated in the front row. Facing us, on a little stage, is a long table covered with glass bottles of various shapes, sizes, and colors. Placed at one end of the table are a banana, a wooden board, and a pink rubber ball. The ball is exactly the same kind as one I use to play “bounce and catch” at home on my front porch.


The noisy crowd of parents and children quiets down as a man in a white coat steps behind the table and faces us. A red rose is pinned to his lapel. A bright blue balloon rises above him, held in his right hand. He’s wearing glasses that have little plastic shields on the side. This man sure has my attention.


He starts the show by pouring two colorless liquids together, turning them first pink and then purple as he says some magic words. As he mixes other liquids and solids, he creates smoke and fog, makes a volcano overflow, and sets off a loud explosion.


Finally, he tells us that it’s time for the grand finale. He still hasn’t touched the banana or ball. I wonder what he’s going to do with them; maybe he’ll give them out as prizes to kids in the audience. I could always use another pink bouncy ball.


He reaches below the table and pulls out a big metal container with a lid on it. He puts on heavy white gloves and uses a long set of tongs to lift the lid off the container. Fog rises from it. Using a metal scoop shaped like the ladle my Mom uses to serve punch at Christmas time, he scoops up some liquid from the container. We can all see that it’s colorless and bubbling. Suddenly he bends over and pours it on the concrete floor right in front of the audience. I can hear it splatter on the floor. I pull back away from it, just like everyone around me. We don’t want to get splashed with this mysterious bubbling liquid. But as soon as it hits the floor, it disappears. It’s gone. None of us got wet, but I did feel a puff of cool air.


The man in the white coat tells us that this liquid is called “liquid nitrogen,” and it’s colder than the coldest Chicago winter. Grabbing the blue balloon, he holds it down on the table and pours a scoop of liquid nitrogen over it. The balloon shrivels up like a huge raisin, making a crinkly sound as it shrinks. The man lets go of it, and it just lies there. But then, right in front of our eyes, it starts to grow, take shape again, and rise into the air.


Next, the man takes the banana. Holding it with his tongs, he lowers it into the liquid nitrogen container for half a minute. When he takes it out of the liquid, he grips it in his gloved hand, and he picks up the board and a nail. Using the “Banana Hammer,” he pounds the nail right into the board. We ooh and ahh and applaud. I guess he won’t be giving out that banana as a prize.


Finally, he reaches for the bouncy ball and drops it in the liquid nitrogen container. After a minute or so, he fishes it out using the metal scooper. Picking it up, he turns around and throws it at the concrete wall behind him. I get ready to grab it when it bounces back toward the audience. But it doesn’t bounce. It shatters into many small pieces. I wonder if he’ll put the ball back together as the grand finale, but it doesn’t work that way, I soon find out.


Before he leaves, however, he has one final demonstration for us. He unpins the red rose from his lab coat lapel, dips it in the liquid nitrogen, and then bangs it on the table. Tiny red pieces of frozen rose petals fly across the table. I’m not sure if I’m supposed to clap or cry. As everyone around me begins to applaud, I hesitantly join in. Even if the rose incident doesn’t sit quite right with me, I decide that chemistry is indeed wonderful, and I’m going to learn more about it when I grow up.

Published in: on November 9, 2009 at 1:10 pm  Comments (3)  
Tags: , , ,

Kindergarten Chemistry

In his inaugural address, President Obama thrilled scientists across the country by simply uttering the following phrase:  “We will restore science to its rightful place.”

What a relief! The last eight years have been bleak for many scientists, as the Bush administration seemed to place ideology over scientific fact all too often. A good overview of scientists’ attitude can be found in this January 21st New York Times article, Scientists Welcome Obama’s Words.”

Science will clearly play a more important role in the Obama administration. It’s about time. Science and technology have a great deal to offer on policy issues such as climate change, energy, and health care. Encouraging scientists and engineers to help on these issues is certainly one of the things that Obama meant when he referred to science’s “rightful place.”

But that’s not the only “rightful place” where science must return.

I did my small part last week, when I helped restore science to one of its most important rightful places–the Kindergarten classroom.

As a Christmas gift to my godchild, a bright and curious five-year-old girl, I offered to visit her class to do some hands-on science activities. When my sons were in elementary school, I enjoyed doing this once or twice every year at their school. However, it’s been more than five years since I stepped into a classroom. It’s definitely time to restore science to its rightful place…

I was just as excited as the students were when we began our activity last week. We did an activity that uses red cabbage as an acid-base indicator. You just rub the red cabbage leaf on an index card to leave a big reddish-purplish smudge. Then, you can dip a Q-Tip in a common household acid, such as vinegar (acetic acid) or lemon juice (citric acid). Swiping the moistened Q-Tip across the smudge will reveal a color change. You can also dip a Q-Tip in a common household base (a mixture of water and baking soda or Alka-Seltzer works well) and repeat the experiment to get a different color change.

We experimented with other plant materials–from carrots to radishes to hydrangea petals. Some gave us wonderful color changes, and others gave us no change.  We talked about making observations, making guesses, and doing experiments–the scientific method.

At the end of the class, I asked all scientists in the room to raise their hand. With a little prodding, every Kindergartner (and the teacher and I) raised a hand.

Science was restored to its rightful place.

——

Want to try the experiment yourself? Here’s a copy of the information I sent home with the students that evening. (I printed the handout on goldenrod-colored paper, which also undergoes some fascinating color changes when you try the same experiment.)

———-

“Science is Fun”

In Mrs. A’s class today, we did some hands-on science experiments involving chemistry and color changes. We learned about some household acids (lemon juice, vinegar, soda pop) and bases (baking soda, Milk of Magnesia). We used red cabbage to make an acid-base indicator that can be used to test pH, a measure of acidity.

pH measurement can be important in many areas of life. If you watch your favorite TV show or movie carefully, you just might start seeing acid-base chemistry in action:

  • Medicine — Blood pH is a routine medical test. It’s part of the “blood gas” test the ER doctors always seem to want on their patients.
  • Cosmetics — Watch those ads carefully. Is your shampoo “pH-balanced?”
  • Food – Acid indigestion? Eat too much of that rich food? You might want to use “Tums” (a base) to take care of that extra stomach acid.
  • Forensic science – Those CSI investigators can tell you all about acids, bases, and pH.
  • Recreation — Swimming pools and hot tubs must be maintained at a constant pH. In those movies set in Southern California, the cute guy that takes care of those pools seems to always be kneeling by the side of the pool testing its pH.

Today’s activity is just one of dozens of fun “kitchen chemistry” experiments that you can do with safe materials that are readily available at your grocery store. If you want to try some of these experiments in your own home, there are many resources available. Here are some to get you started.

Resources on the Internet

One of the handiest sources for wonderful experiments is the World Wide Web. Here are two sites that I highly recommend.

http://www.exploratorium.org/
This site, from the Exploratorium (San Francisco’s science museum), is perennially voted one of the best science sites on the web.

http://www.acs.org/kids
The website of the American Chemical Society (ACS) is a rich resource of information about chemistry. The webpage listed here will point you towards dozens of science activities for children (and their adult helpers). The red cabbage experiment that we did today is adapted from the activity called “Lose the Indicator Blues.” To go directly to the page for this activity, use this address:

http://portal.acs.org/portal/PublicWebSite/education/whatischemistry/scienceforkids/chemicalphysicalchange/acidsbases/index.htm

Published in: on February 5, 2009 at 11:25 am  Comments (19)  
Tags: , , ,